He also served as Secretary of Commerce from to Hopkins served as an important foreign policy adviser and diplomat during World War II. His health declined after due to stomach cancer, and Hopkins died in at the age of His father, born in Bangor, Maine , ran a harness shop after an erratic career as a salesman, prospector, storekeeper and bowling-alley operator , but his real passion was bowling, and he eventually returned to it as a business.
She was deeply religious and active in the affairs of the Methodist church. They spent two years in Chicago and finally settled in Grinnell, Iowa. In the spring of , he accepted a position from John A.
Hopkins at first opposed America's entrance into World War I , but, when war was declared in , he supported it enthusiastically. He was rejected for the draft because of a bad eye. Eventually, the Gulf Division of the Red Cross merged with the Southwestern Division and Hopkins, headquartered now in Atlanta , was appointed general manager in In mid he became executive director of the New York Tuberculosis Association.
During his tenure, the agency grew enormously and absorbed the New York Heart Association. Roosevelt named R. In March , Roosevelt summoned Hopkins to Washington as federal relief administrator.
Convinced that paid work was psychologically more valuable than cash handouts, Hopkins sought to continue and expand New York State's work-relief programs, the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration. He feuded with Harold Ickes , who ran a rival program—the Public Works Administration —which also created jobs but did not require applicants to be unemployed or on relief. FERA, the largest program from to , involved giving money to localities to operate work relief projects to employ those on direct relief.
[The Hopkins Touch] | casadenonews.ga
CWA was similar but did not require workers to be on relief in order to receive a government sponsored job. The WPA operated on its own, and on selected projects in cooperation with local and state governments, but always with its own staff and budget. He and Eleanor Roosevelt worked together to publicize and defend New Deal relief programs. He was concerned with rural areas but increasingly focused on cities in the Great Depression.
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Before Hopkins began to decline from his struggle with stomach cancer in the late s, FDR appeared to be training him as a possible successor. On May 10, , after a long night and day of discussing the German invasion of the Netherlands , Belgium, and Luxembourg that had ended the so-called " Phony War ", Roosevelt urged a tired Hopkins to stay for dinner, and then the night, in a second-floor White House bedroom.
Hopkins would live out of the bedroom for the next three-and-a-half years. In January Roosevelt dispatched Hopkins to assess Britain's determination and situation. Churchill escorted this important visitor all over the United Kingdom. Before he returned, at a small dinner party in the North British Hotel, Glasgow, Hopkins rose to propose a toast.
Well I am going to quote to you one verse from the Book of Ruth Repayment was primarily in the form of Allied military action against the enemy, as well as leases on army and naval bases in Allied territory used by American forces. He went to Moscow in July to make personal contact with Joseph Stalin. Hopkins recommended, and the president accepted, the inclusion of the Soviets in Lend Lease. He made Lend Lease decisions in terms of Roosevelt's broad foreign policy goals.
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Hopkins promoted an aggressive war against Germany and successfully urged Roosevelt to use the Navy to protect convoys headed for Great Britain before the U. Roosevelt brought him along as advisor to his meetings with Churchill and Stalin at Cairo , Tehran , Casablanca in , and Yalta in He was a firm supporter of China , which received Lend-Lease aid for its military and air force.
Hopkins wielded more diplomatic power than the entire State Department. Hopkins helped identify and sponsor numerous potential leaders, including Dwight D. In mid, Hopkins faced a barrage of criticism from Republicans and the press that he had abused his position for personal profit.
The Hopkins Touch: Harry Hopkins and the Forging of the Alliance to Defeat Hitler
Newspapers ran stories detailing sumptuous dinners that Hopkins attended while making public calls for sacrifice. Although Hopkins' health was steadily declining, Roosevelt sent him on additional trips to Europe in ; he attended the Yalta Conference in February He tried to resign after Roosevelt died, but President Harry S.
Truman sent him on one more mission to Moscow. Hopkins had three sons who served in the armed forces during the war, Robert, David and Stephen. Stephen was killed in action serving in the Marine Corps. He interfaced with Soviet officials ranging from the middle ranks to the very highest, including Stalin. Anastas Mikoyan was Hopkins' counterpart with responsibility for Lend-Lease.
He often explained Roosevelt's plans to Stalin and other top Soviet officials in order to enlist Soviet support for American objectives — an endeavor that met with limited success. A particularly striking example of bad faith was Moscow's refusal to allow American naval experts to see the captured German experimental U-boat station at Gdynia and thus help the protection of the very convoys that carried Lend-Lease aid. As the top American decision maker in Lend-Lease, he gave priority to supplying the Soviet Union, despite repeated objections from Republicans.
Hopkins continued to be a target of attacks even after his death. Historians do not cite Jordan as credible—at the time Jordan claimed to have met with Hopkins in Washington regarding uranium shipments, Hopkins was in intensive care at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota. In the FBI concluded that Jordan "either lied for publicity and profit or was delusional".
It is likely that any Soviets who spoke to Hopkins would have been routinely required to report the contact to the NKVD , the Soviet national security agency. Eduard Mark says that some Soviets, such as master-spy Iskhak Akhmerov , thought Hopkins was pro-Soviet, while others thought he was not. Newton, author of FDR and the Holocaust , said that no writer discussing Hopkins has identified any secrets disclosed, nor any decision in which he distorted American priorities in order to help Communism.
Any "secrets" disclosed were authorized. Mark says that at the time, any actions were taken specifically to help the American war effort, and to prevent the Soviets from making a deal with Hitler. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr concluded in Roll writes of running a patronage scam for Democrats and big-city bosses. FDR thought little of Churchill at the time. Their paths had crossed in London during World War I.
So Roosevelt gave Hopkins the delicate task of keeping relations with Churchill on an even keel. Strong domestic isolationism in an election year meant that any aid the United States gave beleaguered Britain must be sub rosa for the time being. To keep the divorced Hopkins close at hand, the president had him and his 7-year-old daughter Dianna move into the White House.
The daughter now lives in suburban Virginia. What she told Mr. Roll in interviews adds much to flavor of those years. Another reason for taking Hopkins into the presidential residence was his precarious health. Photos show a spectral Hopkins. Gaunt, nearly spectral, and malnourished following an operation to remove part of his stomach, the newly widowed Hopkins accepted the president's invitation to move into the White House in and remained Roosevelt's closest advisor, speechwriter, sounding board, and friend nearly to the end.
Between and , with incomparable skill and indefatigable determination, Hopkins organized the Lend-Lease program and steered the president to prepare the public for war with Germany. He became FDR's problem-solver and fixer, helping to smooth over crises, such as when the British refused to allow an invasion of Europe in , enraging Stalin, who felt that the Soviet Union was carrying the military effort against the Nazis. Lacking an official title or a clear executive branch portfolio, Hopkins could take the political risks his boss could not, and proved crucial to maintaining personal relations among the Big Three.
Beloved by some--such as Churchill, who believed that Hopkins "always went to the root of the matter"--and trusted by most--including the paranoid Stalin--there were nevertheless those who resented the influence of "the White House Rasputin. Reviews Review Policy. Published on. Flowing text, Original pages. Best For.
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